Plantar Fasciitis/ Heel Spur

Plantar Fasciitis is an inflammation to the plantar fascia, a structure that connects the heel to the toes and stops the arch of the foot collapsing during normal gait. Due to biomechanical misalignments the foot flattens too much during the gait cycle and can cause this structure to become stretched. Micro tears appear at the point of origin at the heel and cause pain during walking and running. When the condition is more severe, pain is felt when first putting the foot down in the morning or after periods of rest.

Mortons Neuroma

During the propulsive stage of the gait cycle. A lack of rigidity of the forefoot enables the Metatarsals to come together and pinch the nerve that runs between them. Inflammation and a build up of fibrous tissue around the nerve cause discomfort and over time with the build up of more tissue the pain becomes more severe. If left for too long surgical intervention is the only answer, if caught early enough orthotics can be used to separate the metatarsals and provide a more stable foot during propulsion.


Bunions tend to be associated with older people but can affect people at a much younger age. Prevention is the key to halting the progression of bunions, if the Big toe starts to deviate towards the 2nd and 3rd or there is a bump forming at the base, it is wise to consider using a support to redistribute pressure correctly over the forefoot and to prevent any unwanted movement. An orthotic device can considerably slow down the progression of a bunion. Where a bunion has already developed an orthotic can be used to alleviate the pain that is sometimes present.

Blackened Toe Nails

This condition is very common in runners and is often due to ill-fitting shoes. When running the foot impacts the ground this causes it to elongate and toes can be forced into contact with the end of the shoe. It is advisable to check that you have a thumbs width between the end of your toes and the shoe to prevent this from occurring. Even with well fitted shoes blackened nails can be caused by an unstable forefoot or a heavily pronated foot. The muscles within the foot and leg will fire at the incorrect time to try and stabilize the foot to make it more rigid to push the body forward. As a result the toes will claw at the ground, pressure is put through the tips of the toes and the nails over time will become thickened and warped.


The seasamoids are small bones below the big toe, pain can occur if there is too much force being place through the inside border of the foot. The area can become inflamed and in some cases the sesamoids can fracture. This is more common in active people especially with those participating in sports that require jumping and twisting movements.